How Ray Dalio sees the economy

I saw a video by Ray Dalio ( that was making the rounds a few months ago, an thought I’d summarize here how see sees the economy.

According to him, there are three parts of growth in the economy:

  • Productivity
  • ST debt cycle (5-8 years)
  • LT debt cycle (50 years)

The debt cycle goes something like this: “Spending -> Income -> Wealth -> Credit -> Borrowing” -> Spending…

Obviously, as for now, what we’re going through now is deleveraging. Deleveraging is a Recession with no interest rate left to lower.

4 ways to deal with deleveraging –

  1. Cut spending (austerity): fails, as causes income to fall and dbet burden gets worse
  2. Defaults (people, business and banks): this is depression (wealth not being theirs) : debt reduced but income is also reduced (and faster)
  3. Redistribution: govt. has less tax incoming but has to spend on unemployment and stimulus : this leads to redistributions and higher taxes
  4. Central bank print money (unlike spending cuts and defaults, this is inflationary): makes people credit-worthy, and but can buy only financial assets. Fed can only buy real assets.

 When these are balanced, this can be good.

Overall, it can take 7-10 years to deleverage.




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